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How equity market maker get their inventory?

For those who have built or traded market making strategies, you know that cash assets are more complicated to deal with, as an initial inventory has to be maintained to be able to short the asset. The other option is to be able to be naked short, in that case the market maker does not need an initial inventory and can be short without cost (as long as it get flat at the end of the day).

For derivative, the market market can short the product without owning it (only margin requirements differ). In cash FX market maker easily get a loan at a low interest rate. However, I do not know how registered market makers (MM) in equity exchange get an initial inventory OR can short the stock without too much cost, (meaning borrowing it). Can someone know what is the general practice? If MMs get a loan, does the exchange or the issuers participate?